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  1. In this topic we will discuss Nikos Komodakis's work on the approximate primal-dual method for solving MRF optimization. I will describe in this topic 4 algorithms: PD1, PD2, PD3 and FastPD. The MRF optimization (or MAP Inference) problem: \begin{equation} \begin{aligned} &\text{minimize} \quad && \sum_{p\in V}\sum_{l\in L} \theta_p(l)x_p(l) + \sum_{pq\in E}\sum_{(l,l')\in L^2} \theta_{pq}(l,l')x_p(l)x_q(l')\\ &\text{subject to} \quad && \sum_{l\in L} x_p(l) = 1 \quad \forall p\in V,\\ & &&\sum_{l'\in L} x_{pq}(l,l') = x_p(l) \quad\forall pq\in E, l\in L, \\ & &&\sum_{l\in L} x_{pq}(l,l') = x_q(l') \quad\forall pq\in E, l'\in L, \\ & &&x_p(l)\in\set{0,1}, x_{pq}(l,l')\in\set{0,1}\quad\forall pq\in E, l\in L, l'\in L. \end{aligned} \end{equation} Replacing the integral constraints in the above problem by $x_p(l)\ge 0, x_{pq}(l,l')\ge 0$ we get its the LP-relaxation. The dual of this LP-relaxation is given by: \begin{align} \mbox{maximize}\quad & \sum_{p\in V}\min_{a\in L}h_p(a) \label{eq:dual-objective}\\ \mbox{subject to}\quad &y_{pq}(a) + y_{qp}(b) \le \theta_{pq}(a,b) \quad \forall pq\in E, a\in L,b\in L, \label{eq:dual-feasibility}\end{align} where the function $h_p(\cdot)$ is defined by $$h_p(a) = \theta_p(a) + \sum_{q:pq\in E} y_{pq}(a).$$ Denote by $x_p$ the chosen label for the node $p$. ... PD1 Algorithm This algorithm, at termination, gives a primal-dual pair $(\mathbf{x},\mathbf{y})$ satisfying ($\mathbf{x}$ is always chosen as a labeling, thus primal feasibility always holds and hereafter we will not state it explicitly) : Relaxed dual feasibility: \begin{equation}y_{pq}(a) \le \frac{1}{2}\theta_{pq}^{\mathrm{min}}\quad\forall pq\in E,a\in L. \label{eq:relaxed-dual-feasibility} \end{equation} Clearly, this implies dual feasibility, i.e. \eqref{eq:dual-feasibility}. Relaxed complementary slackness conditions: \begin{align} h_p(x_p) &= \min_ah_p(a) \quad \forall p\in V \label{eq:primal-csc-p} \\ y_{pq}(x_p) + y_{qp}(x_q) &\ge \frac{1}{f_\mathrm{app}} \theta_{pq}(x_p,x_q) \quad \forall pq\in E. \label{eq:relaxed-primal-csc-pq} \end{align} During its iterations, the algorithm ensures all the above conditions, except \eqref{eq:primal-csc-p}, which will be satisfied at the end. Dual variables update Given $(\mathbf{x},\mathbf{y})$ satisfying \eqref{eq:relaxed-dual-feasibility} and \eqref{eq:relaxed-primal-csc-pq}. If $(\mathbf{x},\mathbf{y})$ also satisfy \eqref{eq:primal-csc-p} then we obtain an approximate solution. Otherwise, we will be able to increase the dual objective \eqref{eq:dual-objective} as follows. Since \eqref{eq:primal-csc-p} does not hold for all $p$, there exists a non-empty set $V_0 \subseteq V$ of nodes $p$ where $h_p(x_p) > \min_ah_p(a)$.